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Process of assembling a book
"" redirects here. For other uses, see Bookbinder (disambiguation).

A traditional bookbinder at work
Bookbinders type holder

Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack is then bound together along one edge by either sewing with thread through the folds or by a layer of flexible adhesive. Alternative methods of binding that are cheaper but less permanent include loose-leaf rings, individual screw posts or binding posts, twin loop spine coils, plastic spiral coils, and plastic spine combs. For protection, the bound stack is either wrapped in a flexible cover or attached to stiff boards. Finally, an attractive cover is adhered to the boards, including identifying information and decoration. Book artists or specialists in book decoration can also greatly enhance a book''s bindings.[1] A third division deals with the repair, restoration, and conservation of old used bindings.

Today, modern bookbinding is divided between hand binding by individual craftsmen working in a shop and commercial bindings mass-produced by high-speed machines in a factory. There is a broad grey area between the two divisions. The size and complexity of a bindery shop varies with job types, for example, from one-of-a-kind custom jobs, to repair/restoration work, to library rebinding, to preservation binding, to small edition binding, to extra binding, and finally to large-run publisher''s notion when stating "" and that "".[7]

Early intact codices were discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt. Consisting of primarily Gnostic texts in Coptic, the books were mostly written on papyrus, and while many are single-quire, a few are multi-quire. Codices were a significant improvement over papyrus or vellum scrolls in that they were easier to handle. However, despite allowing writing on both sides of the leaves, they were still foliated—numbered on the leaves, like the Indian books. The idea spread quickly through the early churches, and the word Bible comes from the town where the Byzantine monks established their first scriptorium, Byblos, in modern Lebanon. The idea of numbering each side of the page—Latin pagina, ""—appeared when the text of the individual testaments of the Bible were combined and text had to be searched through more quickly. This book format became the preferred way of preserving manuscript or printed material.

DevelopmentWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [edit]

Decorative binding with figurehead of a 12th Century manuscript – Liber Landavensis.
9th Century Qur''s covers to keep it raised off the surface that it rests on, are collectively known as furniture.[12]

The earliest surviving European bookbinding is the St Cuthbert Gospel of about 700, in red goatskin, now in the British Library, whose decoration includes raised patterns and coloured tooled designs. Very grand manuscripts for liturgical rather than library use had covers in metalwork called treasure bindings, often studded with gems and incorporating ivory relief panels or enamel elements. Very few of these have survived intact, as they have been broken up for their precious materials, but a fair number of the ivory panels have survived, as they were hard to recycle; the divided panels from the Codex Aureus of Lorsch are among the most notable. The 8th century Vienna Coronation Gospels were given a new gold relief cover in about 1500, and the Lindau Gospels (now Morgan Library, New York) have their original cover from around 800.[13]

Luxury medieval books for the library had leather covers decorated, often all over, with tooling (incised lines or patterns), blind stamps, and often small metal pieces of furniture. Medieval stamps showed animals and figures as well as the vegetal and geometric designs that would later dominate book cover decoration. Until the end of the period books were not usually stood up on shelves in the modern way. The most functional books were bound in plain white vellum over boards, and had a brief title hand-written on the spine. Techniques for fixing gold leaf under the tooling and stamps were imported from the Islamic world in the 15th century, and thereafter the gold-tooled leather binding has remained the conventional choice for high quality bindings for collectors, though cheaper bindings that only used gold for the title on the spine, or not at all, were always more common. Although the arrival of the printed book vastly increased the number of books produced in Europe, it did not in itself change the various styles of binding used, except that vellum became much less used.[14]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Introduction of paper[edit][edit]

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Although early, coarse hempen paper had existed in China during the Western Han period (202 BC - 9 AD), the Eastern-Han Chinese court eunuch Cai Lun (ca. 50 AD – 121 AD) introduced the first for 1 last update 2020/07/13 significant improvement and standardization of papermaking by adding essential new materials into its composition.[15] Although early, coarse hempen paper had existed in China during the Western Han period (202 BC - 9 AD), the Eastern-Han Chinese court eunuch Cai Lun (ca. 50 AD – 121 AD) introduced the first significant improvement and standardization of papermaking by adding essential new materials into its composition.[15]

the 1 last update 2020/07/13

Early 20th century leather book cover, with gold leaf ornamentation.
Marbled book board from a book published in London in 1872

Bookbinding in medieval China replaced traditional Chinese writing supports such as bamboo and wooden slips, as well as silk and paper scrolls.[16] The evolution of the codex in China began with folded-leaf pamphlets in the 9th century AD, during the late Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), improved by the '' bindings of the Song dynasty (960-1279 AD), the wrapped back binding of the Yuan dynasty (1271-1368), the stitched binding of the Ming (1368-1644 AD) and Qing dynasties (1644-1912), and finally the adoption of Western-style bookbinding in the 20th century (coupled with the European printing press that replaced traditional Chinese printing methods).[17] The initial phase of this evolution, the accordion-folded palm-leaf-style book, most likely came from India and was introduced to China via Buddhist missionaries and scriptures.[18]

With the arrival (from the East) of rag paper manufacturing in Europe in the late Middle Ages and the use of the printing press beginning in the mid-15th century, bookbinding began to standardize somewhat, but page sizes still varied considerably.[citation needed]. Paper leaves also meant that heavy wooden boards and metal furniture were no longer necessary to keep books closed, allowing for much lighter pasteboard covers. The practice of rounding and backing the spines of books to create a solid, smooth surface and "" supporting the textblock against its covers facilitated the upright storage of books and titling on spine. This became common practice by the close of the 16th century but was consistently practiced in Rome as early as the 1520s.[19][20]

In the early sixteenth century, the Italian printer Aldus Manutius realized that personal books would need to fit in saddle bags and thus produced books in the smaller formats of quartos (one-quarter-size pages) and octavos (one-eighth-size pages).[21]

Leipzig, a prominent centre of the German book-trade, in 1739 had 20 bookshops, 15 printing establishments, 22 book-binders and three type-foundries in a population of 28,000 people.[22]

In the German book-distribution system of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the end-user buyers of books "".[23]

The reduced cost of books facilitated cheap lightweight Bibles, made from tissue-thin oxford paper, with floppy covers, that resembled the early Arabic Qurans, enabling missionaries to take portable books with them around the world, and modern wood glues enabled the addition of paperback covers to simple glue bindings.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Historical forms of binding[edit]

Historical forms of binding include the following:[24]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Some older presses could not separate the pages of a book, so readers used a paper knife to separate the outer edges of pages as a book was read.

Modern commercial binding[edit]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for There are various commercial techniques in use today. Today, most commercially produced books belong to one of four categories:

Hardcover binding[edit]

Book Conservators at the State Library of New South Wales, 1943

A hardcover, hardbound or hardback book has rigid covers and is stitched in the spine. Looking from the top of the spine, the book can be seen to consist of a number of signatures bound together. When the book is opened in the middle of a signature, the binding threads are visible. Signatures of hardcover books are typically octavo (a single sheet folded three times), though they may also be folio, quarto, or 16mo (see Book size). Unusually large and heavy books are sometimes bound with wire.

Until the mid-20th century, covers of mass-produced books were laid with cloth, but from that period onward, most publishers adopted clothette, a kind of textured paper which vaguely resembles cloth but is easily differentiated on close inspection. Most cloth-bound books are now half-and-half covers with cloth covering only the spine. In that case, the cover has a paper overlap. The covers of modern hardback books are made of thick cardboard.

Some books that appeared in the mid-20th century signature-bound appear in reprinted editions in glued-together editions. Copies of such books stitched together in their original format are often difficult to find, and are much sought after for both aesthetic and practical reasons.

A variation of the hardcover which is more durable is the calf-binding, where the cover is either half or fully clad in leather, usually from a calf. This is also called full-bound or, simply, leather bound.

Library binding refers to the hardcover binding of books intended for the rigors of library use and are largely serials and paperback publications. Though many publishers have started to provide "" editions, many libraries elect to purchase paperbacks and have them rebound in hard covers for longer life.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Methods of hardcover binding the 1 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit] the 1 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit]

There are a number of methods used to bind hardcover books, from them:

  1. Case binding is the most common type of hardcover binding for books. The pages are arranged in signatures and glued together into a ""/w/index.php?title=Book_block&action=edit&redlink=1""new""Book block (page does not exist)"" The textblock is then attached to the cover or "" which is made of cardboard covered with paper, cloth, vinyl or leather. This is also known as cloth binding, or edition binding.
  2. Oversewing, where the signatures of the book start off as loose pages which are then clamped together. Small vertical holes are punched through the far left-hand edge of each signature, and then the signatures are sewn together with lock-stitches to form the text block. Oversewing is a very strong method of binding and can be done on books up to five inches thick. However, the margins of oversewn books are reduced and the pages will not lie flat when opened.
  3. Sewing through the fold (also called Smyth Sewing), where the signatures of the book are folded and stitched through the fold. The signatures are then sewn and glued together at the spine to form a text block. In contrast to oversewing, through-the-fold books have wide margins and can open completely flat. Many varieties of sewing stitches exist, from basic links to the often used Kettle Stitch. While Western books are generally sewn through punched holes or sawed notches along the fold, some Asian bindings, such as the Retchoso or Butterfly Stitch of Japan, use small slits instead of punched holes.
  4. Double-fan adhesive binding starts off with two signatures of loose pages, which are run over a roller—"" the pages—to apply a thin layer of glue to each page edge. Then the two signatures are perfectly aligned to form a text block, and glue edges of the text block are attached to a piece of cloth lining to form the spine. Double-fan adhesive bound books can open completely flat and have a wide margin. However, certain types of paper do not hold adhesive well, and, with wear and tear, the pages can come loose.[28]
Modern paperback spines

Punch and bind[edit]

Different types of the punch and bind binding include:

  1. Double wire, twin loop, or Wire-O binding is a type of binding that is used for books that will be viewed or read in an office or home type environment. The binding involves the use of a "" shaped wire spine that is squeezed into a round shape using a wire closing device. Double wire binding allows books to have smooth crossover and is affordable in many colors. This binding is great for annual reports, owners manuals and software manuals. Wire bound books are made of individual sheets, each punched with a line of round or square holes on the binding edge. This type of binding uses either a 3:1 pitch hole pattern with three holes per inch or a 2:1 pitch hole pattern with two holes per inch. The three to one hole pattern is used for smaller books that are up to 9/16""closer""/wiki/Comb_binding""Comb binding"" pitch rectangular hole pattern punched near the bound edge. A curled plastic "" is fed through the slits to hold the sheets together. Comb binding allows a book to be disassembled and reassembled by hand without damage. Comb supplies are typically available in a wide range of colors and diameters. The supplies themselves can be re-used or recycled. In the United States, comb binding is often referred to as 19-ring binding because it uses a total of 19 holes along the 11-inch side of a sheet of paper.
  2. VeloBind is used to permanently rivet pages together using a plastic strip on the front and back of the document. Sheets for the document are punched with a line of holes near the bound edge. A series of pins attached to a plastic strip called a Comb feeds through the holes to the other side and then goes through another plastic strip called the receiving strip. The excess portion of the pins is cut off and the plastic heat-sealed to create a relatively flat bind method. VeloBind provides a more permanent bind than comb-binding, but is primarily used for business and legal presentations and small publications.
  3. Spiral binding is the most economical form of mechanical binding when using plastic or metal. It is commonly used for atlases[citation needed] and other publications where it is necessary or desirable to be able to open the publication back on itself without breaking the spine. There are several types but basically it is made by punching holes along the entire length of the spine of the page and winding a wire helix (like a spring) through the holes to provide a fully flexible hinge at the spine. Spiral coil binding uses a number of different hole patterns for binding documents. The most common hole pattern used with this style is 4:1 pitch (4 holes per inch). However, spiral coil spines are also available for use with 3:1 pitch, 5:1 pitch and 0.400-hole patterns.

Thermally activated binding[editWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ]

Some of the different types of thermally activated binding include:

  1. Perfect binding is often used for paperback books. It is also used for magazines; National Geographic is one example of this type. Perfect-bound books usually consist of various sections with a cover made from heavier paper, glued together at the spine with a strong glue. The sections are milled in the back and notches are applied into the spine to allow hot glue to penetrate into the spine of the book. The other three sides are then face-trimmed. This is what allows the magazine or paperback book to be opened. Mass-market paperbacks (pulp paperbacks) are small (16mo size), cheaply made with each sheet fully cut and glued at the spine; these are likely to fall apart or lose sheets after much handling or several years. Trade paperbacks are more sturdily made, with traditional gatherings or sections of bifolios, usually larger, and more expensive. The difference between the two can usually easily be seen by looking for the sections in the top or bottom sides of the book.
  2. Thermal binding uses a one-piece cover with glue down the spine to quickly and easily bind documents without the need for punching. Individuals usually purchase "" or "", which are usually made to fit a standard-size sheet of paper and come with a glue channel down the spine. The paper is placed in the cover, heated in a machine (basically a griddle), and when the glue cools, it adheres the paper to the spine. Thermal glue strips can also be purchased separately for individuals that wish to use customized/original covers. However, creating documents using thermal binding glue strips can be a tedious process, which requires a scoring device and a large-format printer.
  3. A cardboard article looks like a hardbound book at first sight, but it is really a paperback with hard covers. Many books that are sold as hardcover are actually of this type. The Modern Library series is an example. This type of document is usually bound with thermal adhesive glue using a perfect-binding machine.
  4. Tape binding refers to a system that wraps and glues a piece of tape around the base of the document. A tape-binding machine such as the PLANAX COPY Binder or Powis Parker Fastback system will usually be used to complete the binding process and to activate the thermal adhesive on the glue strip. However, some users also refer to tape binding as the process of adding a colored tape to the edge of a mechanically fastened (stapled or stitched) document.

Stitched or sewn binding[edit]

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Types of stitched or sewn bindings:

  1. A sewn book is constructed in the same way as a hardbound book, except that it lacks the hard covers. The binding is as durable as that of a hardbound book.
  2. Stapling through the centerfold, also called saddle-stitching, joins a set of nested folios into a single magazine issue; most comic books are well-known examples of this type.
  3. Magazines are considered more ephemeral than books, and less durable means of binding them are usual. In general, the cover papers of magazines will be the same as the inner pages (self-cover)[29] or only slightly heavier (plus cover). Most magazines are stapled or saddle-stitched; however, some are bound with perfect binding and use thermally activated adhesive.

Modern hand binding[edit]

Scheme of common book design
  1. Belly band
  2. Flap
  3. Endpaper
  4. Book cover
  5. Head
  6. Foredge
  7. Tail
  8. Right page, recto
  9. Left page, verso
  10. Gutter
Hardbound book spine stitching.
Traditionally sewn book opened flat.
Hardbound book with half leather binding (spine and corners) and marbled boards.
Cloth book cover with attached paper panel, mimicking half leather binding

Modern bookbinding by hand can be seen as two closely allied fields: the creation of new bindings, and the repair of existing bindings. Bookbinders are often active in both fields. Bookbinders can learn the craft through apprenticeship; by attending specialized trade schools;[30] by taking classes in the course of university studies, or by a combination of those methods. Some European countries offer a Master Bookbinder certification, though no such certification exists in the United States. MFA programs that specialize in the '' (hand paper-making, printmaking and bookbinding) are available through certain colleges and universities.[31]

Hand bookbinders create new bindings that run the gamut from historical book structures made with traditional materials to modern structures made with 21st-century materials, and from basic cloth-case bindings to valuable full-leather fine bindings. Repairs to existing books also encompass a broad for 1 last update 2020/07/13 range of techniques, from minimally invasive conservation of a historic book to the full restoration and rebinding of a text. Hand bookbinders create new bindings that run the gamut from historical book structures made with traditional materials to modern structures made with 21st-century materials, and from basic cloth-case bindings to valuable full-leather fine bindings. Repairs to existing books also encompass a broad range of techniques, from minimally invasive conservation of a historic book to the full restoration and rebinding of a text.

Though almost any existing book can be repaired to some extent, only books that were originally sewn can be rebound by resewing. Repairs or restorations are often done to emulate the style of the original binding. For new works, some publishers print unbound manuscripts which a binder can collate and bind, but often an existing commercially bound book is pulled, or taken apart, in order to be given a new binding. Once the textblock of the book has been pulled, it can be rebound in almost any structure; a modern suspense novel, for instance, could be rebound to look like a 16th-century manuscript. Bookbinders may bind several copies of the same text, giving each copy a unique appearance.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Hand bookbinders use a variety of specialized hand tools, the most emblematic of which is the bonefolder, a flat, tapered, polished piece of bone used to crease paper and apply pressure.[32] Additional tools common to hand bookbinding include a variety of knives and hammers, as well as brass tools used during finishing.

When creating new work, modern hand binders often work on commission, creating bindings for specific books or collections. Books can be bound in many different materials. Some of the more common materials for covers are leather, decorative paper, and cloth (see also: buckram). Those bindings that are made with exceptionally high craftsmanship, and that are made of particularly high-quality materials (especially full leather bindings), are known as fine or extra bindings. Also, when creating a new work, modern binders may wish to select a book that has already been printed and create what is known as a ''. ""[33]

Conservation and restoration[edit]

Conservation and restoration are practices intended to repair damage to an existing book. While they share methods, their goals differ. The goal of conservation is to slow the book''s creed, ""/w/index.php?title=Primum_non-nocere&action=edit&redlink=1""new""Primum non-nocere (page does not exist)"". While reversibility is one standard, longevity of the functioning of the book is also very important and sometimes takes precedence over reversibility especially in areas that are invisible to the reader such as the spine lining.

Rebacking saving original spine, showing one volume finished and one untouched

Books requiring restoration or conservation treatment run the gamut from the very earliest of texts to books with modern bindings that have undergone heavy usage. For each book, a course of treatment must be chosen that takes into account the book''s life for many decades and is necessary to preserve books that sometimes are limited to a small handful of remaining copies worldwide.

Typically, the first step in saving and preserving a book is its deconstruction. The text pages need to be separated from the covers and, only if necessary, the stitching removed. This is done as delicately as possible. All page restoration for 1 last update 2020/07/13 is done at this point, be it the removal of foxing, ink stains, page tears, etc. Various techniques are employed to repair the various types of page damage that might have occurred during the life of the book. Typically, the first step in saving and preserving a book is its deconstruction. The text pages need to be separated from the covers and, only if necessary, the stitching removed. This is done as delicately as possible. All page restoration is done at this point, be it the removal of foxing, ink stains, page tears, etc. Various techniques are employed to repair the various types of page damage that might have occurred during the life of the book.

The preparation of the "" of the book could mean the difference between a beautiful work of art and a useless stack of paper and leather.

The sections are then hand-sewn in the style of its period, back into book form, or the original sewing is strengthened with new lining on the text-spine. New hinges must be accounted for in either case both with text-spine lining and some sort of end-sheet restoration.

Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for The next step is the restoration of the book cover; This can be as complicated as completely re-creating a period binding to match the original using whatever is appropriate for that time it was originally created. Sometimes this means a new full leather binding with vegetable tanned leather, dyed with natural dyes, and hand-marbled papers may be used for the sides or end-sheets. Finally the cover is hand-tooled in gold leaf. The design of the book cover involves such hand-tooling, where an extremely thin layer of gold is applied to the cover. Such designs can be lettering, symbols, or floral designs, depending on the nature of any particular project.

Sometimes the restoration of the cover is a matter of surgically strengthening the original cover by lifting the original materials and applying new materials for strength. This is perhaps a more common method for covers made with book-cloth although leather books can be approached this way as well. Materials such as Japanese tissues of various weights may be used. Colors may be matched using acrylic paints or simple colored pencils.

It is harder to restore leather books typically because of the fragility of the materials.

Terms and techniquesWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [edit]

Most of the the 1 last update 2020/07/13 following terms apply only with respect to American practices: Most of the following terms apply only with respect to American practices:

  • A leaf (often wrongly referred to as a folio) typically has two pages of text and/or images, front and back, in a finished book. The Latin for leaf is folium, therefore the ablative "" ("") should be followed by a designation to distinguish between recto and verso. Thus "" means "". Although technically not accurate, common usage is "". In everyday speech it is common to refer to "", although it would be more accurate to say ""; this is the origin of the phrase "" i.e. to start on a fresh blank page.
    • The recto side of a leaf faces left when the leaf is held straight up from the spine (in a paginated book this is usually an odd-numbered page).
    • The verso side of a leaf faces right when the leaf is held straight up from the spine (in a paginated book this is usually an even-numbered page).
  • A bifolium (often wrongly called a "", "", or even "") is a single sheet folded in half to make two leaves. The plural is "", not "".
  • A section, sometimes called a gathering, or, especially if unprinted, a quire,[34] is a group of bifolia nested together as a single unit.[35] In a completed book, each quire is sewn through its fold. Depending of how many bifolia a quire is made of, it could be called:[36]
    • duernion – two bifolia, producing four leaves;
    • ternion – three bifolia, producing six leaves;
    • quaternion – four bifolia, producing eight leaves;
    • quinternion – five bifolia, producing ten leaves;
    • sextern or sexternion[37] – six bifolia, producing twelve leaves.
  • A codex is a series of one or more quires sewn through their folds, and linked together by the sewing thread.
  • A signature, in the context of printed books, is a section that contains text. Though the term signature technically refers to the signature mark, traditionally a letter or number printed on the first leaf of a section in order to facilitate collation, the distinction is rarely made today.[38]
  • Folio, quarto, and so on may also refer to the size of the finished book, based on the size of sheet that an early paper maker could conveniently turn out with a manual press. Paper sizes could vary considerably, and the finished size was also affected by how the pages were trimmed, so the sizes given are rough values only.
    • A folio volume is typically 15 in (38 cm) or more in height, the largest sort of regular book.
    • A quarto volume is typically about 9 by 12 in (23 by 30 cm), roughly the size of most modern magazines. A sheet folded in quarto (also 4to or 4º) is folded in half twice at right angles to make four leaves. Also called: eight-page signature.
    • An octavo volume is typically about 5 to 6 in (13 to 15 cm) by 8 to 9 in (20 to 23 cm), the size of most modern digest magazines or trade paperbacks. A sheet folded in octavo (also 8vo or 8º) is folded in half 3 times to make 8 leaves. Also called: sixteen-page signature.
    • A sextodecimo volume is about Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for 4 12 by 6 34 in (11 by 17 cm), the size of most mass market paperbacks. A sheet folded in sextodecimo (also 16mo or 16º) is folded in half 4 times to make 16 leaves. Also called: 32-page signature.
    • Duodecimo or 12mo, 24mo, 32mo, and even 64mo are other possible sizes. Modern paper mills can produce very large sheets, so a modern printer will often print 64 or 128 pages on a single sheet.
  • Trimming separates the leaves of the bound book. A sheet folded in quarto will have folds at the spine and also across the top, so the top folds must be trimmed away before the leaves can be turned. A quire folded in octavo or greater may also require that the other two sides be trimmed. Deckle edge, or Uncut books are untrimmed or incompletely trimmed, and may be of special interest to book collectors.

Paperback binding[edit][edit]

Though books are sold as hardcover or paperback, the actual binding of the pages is important to durability. Most paperbacks and some hard cover books have a "". The pages are aligned or cut together and glued. A strong and flexible layer, which may or may not be the glue itself, holds the book together. In the case of a paperback, the visible portion of the spine is part of this flexible layer.

SpineWoodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for [edit]

Orientation[edit]

The spine of the book is an important aspect in book design, especially in cover design. When the books are stacked up or stored in a shelf, what is on the spine is the only visible information about the book. In a book store, the details on the spine are what initially attract attention.

In languages written from left to right, such as English, books are bound on the left side of the cover; looking from on top, the pages increase counter-clockwise. In right-to-left languages, books are bound on the right. In both cases, this is so the end of a page coincides with where it is turned. Many translations of Japanese comic books retain the binding on the right, which allows the art, laid out to be read right-to-left, to be published without mirror-imaging it.

In China (only areas using Traditional Chinese), Japan, and Taiwan, literary books are written top-to-bottom, right-to-left, and thus are bound on the right, while text books are written left-to-right, top-to-bottom, and thus are bound on the left. In mainland China the direction of writing and binding for all books was changed to be like left to right languages in the mid-20th century.

Titling[edit][edit]

Early books did not have titles on their spines; rather they were shelved flat with their spines inward and titles written with ink along their fore edges. Modern books display their titles on their spines.

In languages with Chinese-influenced writing systems, the title is written top-to-bottom, as is the language in general. In languages written from left to right, the spine text can be pillar (one letter per line), transverse (text line perpendicular to long edge of spine) and along spine. Conventions differ about the direction in which the title along the spine is rotated:

  • top-to-bottom (descending):

In texts published or printed in the United States, the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth, Scandinavia and the Netherlands, the spine text, when the book is standing upright, runs from the top to the bottom. This means that when the book is lying flat with the front cover upwards, the title is oriented left-to-right on the spine. This practice is reflected in the industry standards ANSI/NISO Z39.41[39] and ISO 6357.[40], but ″... lack of agreement in the matter persisted among English-speaking countries as late as the middle of the twentieth century, when books bound in Britain still tended to have their titles read up the spine ...″.[41]

  • bottom-to-top (ascending):

In most of continental Europe, Latin America, and French Canada the spine text, when the book is standing upright, runs from the bottom up, so the title can be read by tilting the head to the left. This allows the reader to read spines of books shelved in alphabetical order in accordance to the usual way left-to-right and top-to-bottom [42].

See also[edit][edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Vaughan 1950, p. xi.
  2. ^^ Robinson 1968, p. 9.
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  4. ^ Pugliese Carratelli, Giovanni (1950). "". Pompeiana: raccolta di studi per il secondo centenario degli di Pompei. pp. 166–178.
  5. ^ Roberts & Skeat 1987, pp. 15–22.
  6. ^ Skeat 2004, p. 45. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSkeat2004 (help)
  7. ^ Turner, Eric (1977). The Typology of the Early Codex. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-8122-7696-5.
  8. ^ Roberts, Colin H; Skeat, TC (1983). The Birth of the Codex. London: British Academy. pp. 15–22. ISBN 0-19-726061-6.Roberts, Colin H; Skeat, TC (1983). The Birth of the Codex. London: British Academy. pp. 15–22. ISBN 0-19-726061-6.
  9. ^ "" in The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, New York & Oxford, 1991, p. 473. ISBN 0195046528
  10. ^ Skeat, T.C. (2004). The Collected Biblical Writings of T.C. Skeat. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 45. ISBN 90-04-13920-6.
  11. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ Greenfield, Jane (2002). ABC of Bookbinding. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press. pp. 79–117. ISBN 1-884718-41-8.
  12. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ Harthan 1950, p. 8.
  13. ^ Harthan 1950, pp. 8–9.
  14. ^ Harthan 1950, pp. 8–11.
  15. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ Needham, Joseph; Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–41. ISBN 0-521-08690-6. the 1 last update 2020/07/13
  16. ^ Needham, Joseph; Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. p. 227. ISBN 0-521-08690-6. the 1 last update 2020/07/13
  17. ^ Needham, Joseph; Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 227–229. ISBN 0-521-08690-6.
  18. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for Needham, Joseph; Tsien, Tsuen-Hsuin (1985). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5: Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 1: Paper and Printing. Cambridge University Press. pp. 227–229. ISBN 0-521-08690-6.
  19. ^ "". Boundless Books and Writingware. Retrieved 3 the 1 last update 2020/07/13 April3 April 2020. for 1 last update 2020/07/13
  20. ^ Piepenbring, Dan (12 November 2015). "". The Paris Review. Retrieved 27 for 1 last update 2020/07/13 January27 January 2017.
  21. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ "". www.encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
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  23. ^ Erlin, Matt (2010). "". In Tatlock, Lynne (ed.). Publishing Culture and the "": German Book History in the Long Nineteenth Century. Studies in German Literature Linguistics and Culture Series. 76. Camden House. pp. 25–54. ISBN 9781571134028. Retrieved Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for 19 February 2013. In most cases, questions related to book-binding did not figure into the discussions between authors and publishers about the formal aspects of editions of their works, because individual purchasers generally made separate arrangements with either the publisher or a bookbinder to have printed sheets bound according to their wishes and their budget.
  24. ^ See some examples at "". Book Arts Web. 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
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  27. ^ Miller, Rhonda ""nofollow""external text""http://myhandboundbooks.blogspot.ca/2011/06/secret-belgian-binding-not-secret.html"" at My Handbound Books – Bookbinding Blog, 19 June 2011
  28. ^ Parisi, Paul (February 1994). "". New Library Scene. 13 (1): 8–11, 15.
  29. ^ "". Stanford University Libraries and Academic Information Resources. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  30. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ Such as the: Centro del bel Libro Archived 26 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Camberwell College of Arts, The London College of Communication, and The North Bennet Street SchoolSuch as the: Centro del bel Libro Archived 26 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Camberwell College of Arts, The London College of Communication, and The North Bennet Street School
  31. ^ Such as: Columbia College Chicago Archived 12 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, the University of Alabama, – Nova Scotia College of Art and Design and the University of the Arts in Philadelphia Archived 21 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ "". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved 23 October 2008.
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  36. ^ "". National Diet Library, Japan. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  37. ^ "". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved 7 the 1 last update 2020/07/13 June7 June 2009.
  38. ^ "". US Government Printing Office. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
  39. ^ Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ANSI/NISO Z39.41-1997 Printed Information on Spines Archived 14 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  40. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^^ ISO 6357 Spine titles on books and other publications, 1985.
  41. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^ Petroski, Henry (1999). The the the 1 last update 13 Jul 2020 1 last update 2020/07/13 Book on the BookshelfThe Book on the Bookshelf. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40649-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)Petroski, Henry (1999). The the 1 last update 2020/07/13 Book on the BookshelfThe Book on the Bookshelf. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40649-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  42. Woodworking Planshow to Woodworking Plans for ^^ Drösser, Christoph (9 April 2011). "". Die Zeit. Retrieved 9 April 2011.

Further reading the 1 for 1 last update 2020/07/13 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit] the 1 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit]

  • Brenni, Vito J., compiler. Bookbinding: A Guide to the Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1982. ISBN 0-313-23718-2
  • Diehl, Edith. Bookbinding: Its Background and Technique. New York: Dover Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-486-24020-7. (Originally published by Rinehart & Company, 1946 in two volumes.)
  • Gross, Henry. Simplified Bookbinding. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, ISBN 0-442-22898-8
  • Ikegami, Kojiro. Japanese Bookbinding: Instructions from a Master Craftsman / adapted by Barbara Stephan. New York: Weatherhill, 1986. ISBN 0-8348-0196-5. (Originally published as Hon no tsukuriikata (本のつくり方).)
  • Johnson, Arthur W. Manual of Bookbinding. New York: Charles Scribner''The Practical Guide to Craft Bookbinding. London: Thames and Hudson, 1985. ISBN 0-500-27360-X
  • Lewis, A. W. Basic Bookbinding. New York: Dover Publications, 1957. ISBN 0-486-20169-4. (Originally published by B.T. Batsford, 1952)
  • Smith, Keith A. Non-adhesive Binding: Books Without Paste or Glue. Fairport, NY: Sigma Foundation, 1992. ISBN 0-927159-04-X
  • Waller, Ainslie C. "", in The Private Library Autumn 1983, published by the Private Libraries Association
  • Zeier, Franz. Books, Boxes and Portfolios: Binding Construction, and Design Step-by-Step. New York: Design Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8306-3483-5
  • Rossen Petkov, Licheva, Elitsa and others, Binding design and paper conservation of antique books, albums and documents (BBinding), Sofia, 2014. ISBN 978-954-92311-8-2

External links for 1 last update 2020/07/13 [[edit]

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